KEWIRAUSAHAAN DAN KEBIJAKAN NEGARA (Studi Kebijakan Pemerintah terhadap Pelaku UKM di Provinsi Kalimantan Selatan

  • M. Sayuti Enggok

Abstract

Pemerintah sejak lama dari waktu ke waktu menetapkan berbagai kebijakan dengan tujuan untuk membina dan mengembangkan Pelaku UKM menjadi lebih maju dan lebih besar. Namun demikian, kebijakan tersebut lebih sering dikaitkan dengan upaya untuk mengurangi pengangguran, memerangi kemiskinan dan pemerataan pendapatan. Karena itu secara tidak langsung sering dianggap pembinaan dan pengembangan UKM sebagai kebijakan penciptaan kesempatan kerja, atau kebijakan redistribusi pendapatan yang lebih banyak berorientasi sosial daripada berorientasi pasar maupun persaingan terlebih-lebih di era dimana di satu sisi kewenangan pelaksanaan kebijakan dilimpahkan kepada masing-masing daerah dan di sisi lain daerah menghadapi persaingan semakin ketat baik di tingkat regional maupun global. Kebijakan yang diimplementasikan lebih banyak ditujukan hanya untuk mengatasi hal-hal yang bersifat struktural yaitu yang bersifat fisik material. Masih sangat sedikit kebijakan pemerintah khususnya di daerah yang diimplementasikan ke dalam program-program untuk mengarahkan secara langsung untuk pembinaan dan pembangunan spirit kewirausahaan yang berlandaskan pada nilai-nilai budaya lokal, karena kewirausahaan lebih banyak dipandang sebagai aktivitas dunia kepedagangan saja bukan sebagai prilaku dan sikap mental yang mandiri dan inovatif serta tangguh dalam menghadapi kompetisi. Kata kunci : Kebijakan, Kewirausahaan, UKM.

References

Alma, Buchari. 2008. Kewirausahaan untuk Mahasiswa dan Umum. Bandung:

Alfabeta.

Amors, J. E., M. Atienza, dan G. Romani. 2009. Financing Entrepreneurial

Activity in Chile: Scale and Scope of the Public Support Programs. Venture

Capital An International Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, Volume

Issue 1, pp. 50-70.

Anderson, James E. 1979. Public Policy Making. New York: Holt, Rinerhart and

Winston.

_______________. 2003. Public Policy Making: An Introduction. Boston:

Houghton Mifflin Company.

Asghar, Afshar Jahnshahi, Khaled Nawaser, Morteza Jamali Paghaleh, dan Seyed

Mohammad Sadeq Khaksar. 2011. The Role of Government Policy and the

Growth of Entrepreneurship in the Micro, Small (&) Medium-sized

Enterprises in India: an Overview. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied

Sciences, Volume 5, Issue 6, pp. 1563-1571.

Audretsch, David B. (2007). Entrepreneurship Capital and Economic Growth.

Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Volume 23, Number 1, 2007, pp.6378.

Audretsch, David B., Isabel Grilo, dan A. Roy Thurik. 2007. Explaining

Entrepreneurship and the Role of Policy: a Framework. Handbook of

Research on Entrepreneurship Policy, diedit oleh David B. Audretsch,

Isabel Grilo, dan A. Roy Thurik, diterbitkan Edward Edgar Publishing,

Massachusetts, USA, pp. 1-18.

Beach, Lee Roy dan Terry Connolly. 2005. The Psychology of Decision Making:

People in Organizations. Thousands Oaks, California: Sage Publications,

Inc.

Belousova, Olga, Benot Gailly, dan Olivier Basso. 2010. A Conceptual Model of

Corporate Entrepreneurial Behavior. Working Paper 06/2010, Center for

Research in Entrepreneurial Change & Innovative Strategies, pp. 1-32.

Braun, Miguel, Antonio Cicioni, dan Nicolas J. Ducote. 2000. Should Think

Tanks do Policy Implementation in Developing Countries? Lessons from

Argentina. Think Tanks Across Nations: Policy Research and the Politics of

Ideas, Second Edition, diedit oleh Andrew Denham, Diane Stone and Mark

Garnett, Manchester University Press. Paper presented at Global

Development Network Conference in Tokyo, December 2000, pp. 1-24.

Budimansyah, Dasim. 2004. Membangkitkan Karsa Umat. Bandung: PT.

Genesindo.

Bungin, Burhan. 2007. Penelitian Kualitatif: Komunikasi, Ekonomi, Kebijakan

Publik, dan Ilmu Sosial Lainnya. Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group.65

Charbit, Claire. 2011. Governance of Public Policies in Decentralised Contexts:

The Multi-level Approach, OECD Regional Development Working Papers,

/04, OECD Publishing, pp. 1-23.

Dunn, William N. (2002). Public Policy Analysis: An Introduction. New Jersey:

Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall International.

Dwijowijoto, Riant Nugroho. 2003. Kebijakan Publik: Formulasi, Implementasi,

Evaluasi. Jakarta: Penerbit PT Elex Komputindo.

Dwijowijoto, Riant Nugroho. 2011. Public Policy. Jakarta: Penerbit PT Elex

Komputindo.

Hisrich, Robert D., Michael P. Peters, dan Dean A. Shepherd. 2008.

Kewirausahaan Edisi 7. Jakarta: Penerbit Salemba Empat.

Hitt, Michael A., R. Duanne Ireland, S. Michael Camp, dan Donald L. Sexton.

Strategic Entrepreneurship: Creating a New Mindset. Oxford: WileyBlackwell.

Islamy, M. Irfan. 2002. Prinsip-Prinsip Perumusan Kebijaksanaan Negara

(Cetakan kesebelas). Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.

Kostka, Genia dan William Hobbs. 2012. Local Energy Efficiency Policy

Implementation in China: Bridging the Gap between National Priorities and

Local Interests. The China Quarterly, 211, September 2012, pp. 765785.

Alma, Buchari. 2008. Kewirausahaan untuk Mahasiswa dan Umum. Bandung:

Alfabeta.

Amors, J. E., M. Atienza, dan G. Romani. 2009. Financing Entrepreneurial

Activity in Chile: Scale and Scope of the Public Support Programs. Venture

Capital An International Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, Volume

Issue 1, pp. 50-70.

Anderson, James E. 1979. Public Policy Making. New York: Holt, Rinerhart and

Winston.

_______________. 2003. Public Policy Making: An Introduction. Boston:

Houghton Mifflin Company.

Arcand, Jean-Louis. 2008. Decentralization, Local Governance, and Rural

Development. In Agriculture and Development: Berlin Workshop Series

, ed. G. Kochendorfer-Lucius and B. Pleskovic, Washington 2009, pp.

-10.

Arikunto, Suharismi. 2008. Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek.

Bandung: Alpabeta.

Asghar, Afshar Jahnshahi, Khaled Nawaser, Morteza Jamali Paghaleh, dan Seyed

Mohammad Sadeq Khaksar. 2011. The Role of Government Policy and the 66

Growth of Entrepreneurship in the Micro, Small (&) Medium-sized

Enterprises in India: an Overview. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied

Sciences, Volume 5, Issue 6, pp. 1563-1571.

Audretsch, David B. (2007). Entrepreneurship Capital and Economic Growth.

Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Volume 23, Number 1, 2007, pp.6378.

Audretsch, David B., Isabel Grilo, dan A. Roy Thurik. 2007. Explaining

Entrepreneurship and the Role of Policy: a Framework. Handbook of

Research on Entrepreneurship Policy, diedit oleh David B. Audretsch,

Isabel Grilo, dan A. Roy Thurik, diterbitkan Edward Edgar Publishing,

Massachusetts, USA, pp. 1-18.

Beach, Lee Roy dan Terry Connolly. 2005. The Psychology of Decision Making:

People in Organizations. Thousands Oaks, California: Sage Publications,

Inc.

Belousova, Olga, Benot Gailly, dan Olivier Basso. 2010. A Conceptual Model of

Corporate Entrepreneurial Behavior. Working Paper 06/2010, Center for

Research in Entrepreneurial Change & Innovative Strategies, pp. 1-32.

Braun, Miguel, Antonio Cicioni, dan Nicolas J. Ducote. 2000. Should Think

Tanks do Policy Implementation in Developing Countries? Lessons from

Argentina. Think Tanks Across Nations: Policy Research and the Politics of

Ideas, Second Edition, diedit oleh Andrew Denham, Diane Stone and Mark

Garnett, Manchester University Press. Paper presented at Global

Development Network Conference in Tokyo, December 2000, pp. 1-24.

Budimansyah, Dasim. 2004. Membangkitkan Karsa Umat. Bandung: PT.

Genesindo.

Bungin, Burhan. 2007. Penelitian Kualitatif: Komunikasi, Ekonomi, Kebijakan

Publik, dan Ilmu Sosial Lainnya. Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group.

Charbit, Claire. 2011. Governance of Public Policies in Decentralised Contexts:

The Multi-level Approach, OECD Regional Development Working Papers,

/04, OECD Publishing, pp. 1-23.

Daud, Alfani. 1997. Islam dan Masyarakat Banjar, Diskripsi dan Analisa

Kebudayaan Banjar. Jakarta: PT. RajaGrafindoPersada.

___________. 2004. Islam dan asal usul masyarakat Banjar. KANDIL Jurnal

Kebudayaan, Edisi 6, Tahun II, Agustus Oktober 2004, (85 - 88),

Banjarmasin: Lembaga Kajian Keislaman dan Kemasyarakatan.

Dharmawan, Arya Hadi. 2006. Pendekatan-Pendekatan Pembangunan Pedesaan

danPertanian: Klasik dan Kontemporer. Dinamika Masyarakat Pedesaan,

Sosiologi Pedesaan, IPB, Bogor.

Dunn, William N. (2002). Public Policy Analysis: An Introduction. New Jersey:

Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall International.67

Dwijowijoto, Riant Nugroho. 2003. Kebijakan Publik: Formulasi, Implementasi,

Evaluasi. Jakarta: Penerbit PT Elex Komputindo.

Dwijowijoto, Riant Nugroho. 2011. Public Policy. Jakarta: Penerbit PT Elex

Komputindo.

Foss, Nicolai J. dan Peter G. Klein. 2002. Entrepreneurship and the Firm:

Austrian Perspectives on Economic Organization. Penerbit Edward Elgar

Publishing. Northampton, Massachuttes: Penerbit Edward Elgar Publishing.

Frinces, Z. Heflin. 2004. Kewirausahaan dan Inovasi Bisnis. Yogyakarta:

Darussalam.

Gottschalk, Petter. 2009. Entrepreneurship and Organised Crime: Entrepreneurs

in Illegal Business. Nothampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Griffin, Ricky W. 2004. Manajemen. Jilid 1. Edisi ketujuh. Jakarta: Penerbit

Erlangga.

Guidi, Marco Enrico Luigi. (2005). The Changing Firm: Contributions from the

History of Economic Thought: Selected Papers from the 7th Conference of

Aispe - Associazione Italiana Per La Storia Del Pensiero Economico.

Milano, Italy: FrancoAngeli.

Hallward-Driemeier, Mary, Gita Khun-Jush, dan Lant Pritchett. 2010. Deals

Versus Rules: Policy Implementation Uncertainty and Why Firms Hate It.

Harvard Kennedy School, Faculty Research Working Paper Series, May

, pp. 1-68.

Hanusch, Horst dan Andreas Pyka. 2007. Elgar Companion to neo-Schumpeterian

Economics. Northampton, Massachuttes: Penerbit Edward Elgar Publishing.

Harian Global. (Sabtu, 16 Januari 2010). FTA dan Kesejahteraan Pelaku UMKM.

Diakses melalui http://www.harian-global.com/index.php?option=

com_content&view=article&id=29308:fta-dan-kesejahteraan-pelakuumkm&catid=57:gagasan&Itemid=65, diakses Agustus 2013.

Helling, Louis, Rodrigo Serrano, dan David Warren. 2005. Linking Community

Empowerment, Decentralized Governance, and Public Service

ProvisionThrough a Local Development Framework. Social Protection

Discussion Paper, No. 0535, September 2005, pp. 1-93.

Hisrich, Robert D., Michael P. Peters, dan Dean A. Shepherd. 2008.

Kewirausahaan Edisi 7. Jakarta: Penerbit Salemba Empat.

Hitt, Michael A., R. Duanne Ireland, S. Michael Camp, dan Donald L. Sexton.

Strategic Entrepreneurship: Creating a New Mindset. Oxford: WileyBlackwell.68

Iqbal, Muhammad. 2007. Analisis Peran Pemangku Kepentingan dan

Implementasinya dalam Pembangunan Pertanian. Jurnal Litbang Pertanian,

(3), 2007.

Islamy, M. Irfan. 2002. Prinsip-Prinsip Perumusan Kebijaksanaan Negara

(Cetakan kesebelas). Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.

Klemmer, Peter. 2008. Linking National Culture to Domestic Entrepreneurial

Activity: A Review of Current International Comparative Entrepreneurship

Research. Norderstedt, Germany: GRIN Verlag.

Kostka, Genia dan William Hobbs. 2012. Local Energy Efficiency Policy

Implementation in China: Bridging the Gap between National Priorities and

Local Interests. The China Quarterly, 211, September 2012, pp. 765785.

Makinde, Taiwo. 2005. Problems of Policy Implementation in Developing

Nations: The Nigerian Experience. J. Soc. Sci., Volume 11 Number 1, pp.

-69.

Minniti, Maria. 2008. The Role of Government Policy on Entrepreneurial

Activity: Productive, Unproductive, or Destructive?. Entrepreneurship

Theory and Practice, 1042-2587, 2008 Baylor University, pp. 779-790.

Nugroho, Riant. (2008). Kebijakan Publik untuk Negara-Negara Berkembang:

Model-Model Perumusan, Implementasi dan Evaluasi. Jakarta: Penerbit

Elex Media Komputindo.

Nugroho, SBM. 2008. Kebijakan Publik yang Pro Publik. Riptek, Vol.2, No.2, pp.

-6.

Osborne, David dan Ted Gaebler. 1996. Mewirausahakan Birokrasi. Jakarta:

Pustaka Binaman Pressindo.

Othman, Norfaizah Bt, Muna Bt Sulaiman, Norlita Bt Zainudin, dan Zubair

Hasan. 2008. Entrepreneurial Acculturation in Malaysia: Efforts and

Achievements. MPRA (Munich Personal RePEc Archive) Paper, No. 8980,

posted 6. June 2008, pp. 1-12.

Prananingtyas, Paramita. 2001. Pembaharuan Peraturan Perundang-undangan

mengenai Usaha Kecil dan Menengah di Indonesia. Makalah, Seminar

Kajian Peraturan Perundang-undangan tentang Pengembangan Usaha

Kecil dan Menengah, 26 Juli 2001 di Jakarta disponsori oleh Proyek

Partnership for Economic Growth (PEG) USAID.

Purwanto,ErwanAgus. 2005. Mencari Format Birokrasi untuk Pengembangan

Usaha Kecil dan Menengah (UKM) di Indonesia dalam Wahyudi

Kumorotomo, MPP (Editor), 2005, Birokrasi Publik dalam Sistem Politik

Semi-Parlementer, Yogyakarta: Penerbit Gava Media.

Rabbani, Golam dan Solaiman Chowdhury. 2013. Policies and Institutional

Supports for Women Entrepreneurship Development in Bangladesh: 69

Achievements and Challenges. International Journal of Research in

Business and Social Science, Vol.2 No.1,pp. 31-39.

Raco, Jozef R. dan Tanod Revi Rafael H.M. (2012). Metode Fenomenologi

Aplikasi pada Entrepreneurship. Jakarta: Grasindo.

Ridde, Valery. 2009. Policy Implementation in an African State: an Extension of

Kingdons Multiple-Streams Approach. Public Administration, Vol. 87, No.

, pp.938954.

Sari, Diana, Quamrul Alam, dan Nicholas Beaumont. 2008. Internationalisation of

Small Medium Sized Enterprises in Indonesia: Entrepreneur Human and

Social Capital. Paper, dipresentasikan dalam 17th Biennial Conference of

the Asian Studies Association of Australia in Melbourne 1-3 July 2008, pp.

-12.

Schtt, Thomas dan Kent Wickstrm Jensen. 2008. The Coupling between

Entrepreneurship and Public Policy: Tight in Developed Countries but

Loose in Developing Countries. Estudios de Economia, Volume 35, No. 2,

pp. 195-214.

Scott, Tim. 2006. Decentralization and National Human Development Reports.

NHDR-National Human Development Report Occasional Paper 6, pp. 1-32.

United Nations Development Programme.

Shane, Scott Andrew. 2003. A general Theory of Entrepreneurship: The

Individual-Opportunity Nexus. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Smith, Bruce L. 2003. Public Policy and Public Participation Engaging Citizen

and Community in the Development of Public Policy. Canada: Produced by

Bruce L. Smith for the Population and Public Health Branch, Atlantic

Regional Office.

Tambunan, Tulus. 2002. Usaha Kecil dan Menengah di Indonesia: Beberapa Isu

Penting, Jakarta: Salemba Empat.

Tambunan, Tulus. 2005. Promoting Small and Medium Enterprises with a

Clustering Approach: A Policy Experience from Indonesia. Journal of Small

Business Management 2005 43(2), pp. 138154.

Wijandi, Soesarsono. 2004. Pengantar Kewiraswastaan. Bandung: Sinar Baru

Algensindo.

Wolcott, Robert C. dan Michael J. Lippitz. 2007. The Four Models of Corporate

Entrepreneurship. Fall 2007 MIT Sloan Management Review, Volume 49,

No. 1, pp. 75-82.

Zimmerer, Thomas W. dan Norman M. Scarborough. 2009. Kewirausaahaan dan

Manajemen Usaha Kecil. Buku 1. Jakarta: Penerbit Salemba Empat.

Published
09-04-2021