POLITIK PERKOTAAN DI SURABAYA PADA KEPEMIMPINAN TRI RISMAHARINI TAHUN 2010-2015: STUDI KASUS REVITALISASI KAMPUNG DOLLY

  • Lusi Andriyani, SIP.,M.Si

Abstract

Kota dan wilayah perkotaan merupakan bagian wilayah yang telah menjadi kajian sejak tahun 1976 seiring dengan perdebatan teori urban regime di Eropa yang digunakan untuk melihat kota sebagai wilayah yang melaksanakan fungsi pelayanan sosial dan kesejahteraan rakyat. Pendekatan urban regime juga digunakan oleh Fainstein untuk menjelaskan lingkaran kekuasan yang ada di administrasi.Pada tahun 1983 kajian perkotaan mengalami perkembangan dengan di publikasikannya pandangan tentang The City as Growth Machine dari Lexion. Pada pendekatan urban politic, seperti yang dikemukakan oleh Bryan T. Downs dalam bukunya Politics, Change and Urban Crisis menempatkan tiga hal penting untuk menjadi poin kajian: Pertama, berkaitan dengan kewenangan politik yang dimiliki oleh kota serta fragmentasi yang terbangun dan bagaimana kota menyelesaikan permasalahannya. Kedua, peran elit lokal perkotaan dan kepercayaan massa terhadap elit lokal dalam menyelesaikan masalah perkotaan. Ketiga, kontrol dan partisipasi masyarakat dalam mencapai tujuan bersama.Kajian ini belum banyak berkembang dalam studi politik. Saat ini kajian perkotaan lebih banyak melihat ruang sebagai objek kajian.Ruang publik perkotaaan yang telah berubah fungsi akibat dari aktivitas masyarakat yang cenderung pluralis menimbulkan banyak masalah, di antaranya kejahatan, transportasi, perumahan, infrastruktur, dan masih banyak lagi. Hal tersebut dapat terjadi apabila kebijakan pemerintah kota tidak mampu mengimbangi tuntutan kebutuhan masyarakat perkotaan yang semakin kompleks. Surabaya merupakan kota terbesar ke dua setelah Jakarta yang diindikasikan pada tahun 2015akan menjadi kota berpenduduk terbanyak nomor lima di dunia. Sebagai kawasan mega-urban, berbagai masalah sosial yang yang muncul seiring dengan perkembangan kotaakan memunculkan masalah di perkotaan apabila pemerintah kota Surabaya tidak dapat memenuhi kebutuhan pelayanan publik bagi mereka seperti pada program revitalisasi kampong Dolly.Kata Kunci: Politik Kota, elit lokal, partisipasi masyarakat.

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Published
09-04-2021