LARANGAN DAN PEMBATASAN EKSPOR DI MASA PANDEMI COVID-19 BERDASARKAN ATURAN WTO

Keywords: pandemi Covid-19, pembatasan ekspor, WTO

Abstract

Abstract

The research objective is to analyze decisions of countries that impose prohibition and restriction on exports during the Covid-19 pandemic. The method used in this research is normative legal research based on the rules of international trade law. In this research the researchers state that exports prohibition and restrictions imposed by countries during Covid-19 pandemic can be justified based on WTO law. The Covid-19 pandemic is undeniably bringing unprecedented challenges in the world of health, economy, and also international trade. The need for medical items, such as protective equipment, medicines, and other products that are important to deal with this pandemic has skyrocketed in almost every country in the world. As a result, there is a huge shock to global demand for medical products since practically all countries need the same product to deal with Covid-19 pandemic. However, all countries depend on international trade and global value chains to obtain medical goods. The situation is further complicated by the ongoing disruption of international transportation, particularly air cargo operations related to passenger travel. Basically, countries decisions on prohibitions and restrictions exports can be justified by the WTO law as long as these actions can be proven to be correlated as a reason to deal with Covid-19 pandemic.

Keywords: Covid-19 pandemic; export restrictions; WTO

Abstrak

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa mengenai tindakan negara dalam melakukan larangan dan pembatasan ekspor di masa pandemi Covid-19. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian yuridis normatif yang berdasarkan pada aturan-aturan hukum internasional. Melalui penelitian ini peneliti berpendapat bahwa larangan dan pembatasan ekspor yang dilakukan oleh negara pada masa pandemi Covid-19 dapat dijustifikasi berdasarkan aturan perdagangan internasional WTO. Pandemi Covid-19 tidak dapat dipungkiri membawa tantangan yang belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya dalam dunia kesehatan, ekonomi, termasuk dalam perdagangan internasional. Kebutuhan akan barang-barang medis, seperti peralatan pelindung, obat-obatan, dan produk-produk lain yang penting untuk memerangi pandemi Covid-19 ini telah meroket di hampir setiap negara di dunia. Akibatnya, ada guncangan besar pada permintaan global untuk produk medis, karena secara praktis semua negara membutuhkan produk yang sama untuk memerangi pandemi Covid-19. Namun, semua negara bergantung pada perdagangan internasional dan rantai nilai global untuk mendapatkan barang-barang medis. Keadaan semakin dipersulit mengingat adanya gangguan yang berkelanjutan pada transportasi internasional, khususnya operasi kargo udara yang terkait dengan perjalanan penumpang. Pada dasarnya tindakan negara berupa larangan dan pembatasan ekspor baik pada peralatan medis maupun bahan makanan dapat dibenarkan selama tindakan tersebut dapat dibuktikan korelasinya sebagai alasan untuk memerangi pandemi Covid-19.

Kata kunci: pandemi Covid-19; pembatasan ekspor; WTO

Author Biographies

Chesa Effendi, Universitas Airlangga
Fakultas Hukum
Ni Gusti Ayu Made Nia Rahayu, Universitas Airlangga
Fakultas Hukum
Rizki Istighfariana Achmadi, Universitas Airlangga
Fakultas Hukum

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Published
2020-07-22
Section
Articles