Operation Peace Spring Turki Pada Konflik Bersenjata Suriah: Legalitas Dan Akibat Hukumnya

  • Fajar Arief Nugroho Fakultas Hukum Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Sasmini Sasmini Fakultas Hukum Universitas Sebelas Maret


This paper will examine the legality of Turkey's military action in Syria in 2019, codenamed OPS, and whether it can be considered an act of aggression against Syria under international law. Unlike similar papers, which discuss the military action in terms of politics and foreign policy and link it to Turkey's refugee problem, this paper will focus on the military action's compliance with international law principles such as the use of armed force, right of self-defence, and international crimes This paper is normative legal research that draws its conclusion using the deductive syllogism method. This paper concludes that OPS does not meet the criteria of international law's right to self-defence and is a clear violation of the UN Charter's prohibition on the use of armed force. More research is needed to investigate the legal ramifications of Turkey's military action, such as whether OPS fulfilled the elements of the crime of aggression in the 1998 Rome Statute, how much damage Syria has suffered as a result of this military action and how Turkey is liable for these losses under international law.

Keywords: crime of aggressions, military intervention, right to self-defence


Tulisan ini akan membahas isu legalitas dari aksi militer Turki di Suriah pada tahun 2019, dengan sandi OPS, serta menganalisa apakah aksi militer tersebut dapat dianggap sebagai tindakan agresi terhadap Suriah berdasarkan kerangka hukum internasional. Tidak seperti tulisan serupa yang membahas aksi militer ini dari segi politik dan kebijakan luar negeri serta menghubungkannya dengan masalah pengungsi yang dialami Turki, tulisan ini akan berfokus pada hubungan aksi militer tersebut dengan prinsip-prinsip hukum internasional seperti penggunaan kekuatan bersenjata, hak membela diri, dan kejahatan internasional. Tulisan ini merupakan penelitian hukum normatif yang menggunakan metode silogisme deduktif dalam pengambilan kesimpulannya. Dalam kesimpulannya, tulisan ini menemukan bahwa OPS tidak memenuhi kriteria hak membela diri yang diatur dalam hukum internasional dan jelas merupakan pelanggaran terhadap larangan penggunaan kekuatan bersenjata dalam Piagam PBB. Dibutuhkan penelitian lanjutan untuk mendalami akibat hukum bagi Turki akibat aksi militernya ini, seperti apakah OPS telah memenuhi elemen dari kejahatan agresi dalam Statuta Roma tahun 1998 serta seberapa besar kerugian yang ditanggung oleh Suriah akibat aksi militer ini dan bagaimana pertanggungjawaban Turki atas kerugian tersebut dalam kerangka hukum internasional.

Kata kunci: agresi militer; hak mempertahankan diri; invensi militer


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