Combinative Class Management to Reduce Student Academic Procrastination during the Covid-19 Pandemic

  • Suhadianto Suhadianto Faculty of Psychology, Universitas 17 Agustus 1945 Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Tatik Meiyuntariningsih Faculty of Psychology, Universitas 17 Agustus 1945 Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Aliffia Ananta Faculty of Psychology, Universitas 17 Agustus 1945 Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia


The prevalence of academic procrastination among students in various cultures around the world is up to 70%. The Covid-19 pandemic, which requires online learning, is increasing academic procrastination. Academic procrastination has a serious impact on academic achievement, so it needs strategy to reduce academic procrastination. This study aims to determine the use of combinative classroom management to reduce student academic procrastination. This research is to review research. Literature searches related to strategies to reduce academic procrastination were carried out through Google Scholar and ScienceDirect. The literature relevant to the research objectives was analyzed using hermeneutic techniques. The results of the literature review indicate the need for the use of combinative class management (behavioristic and humanistic approaches). The results of this review literature review can be use as a reference in arranging classes to reduce academic procrastination in students, either during the Covid-19 pandemic or after.
Keywords: Combinative classroom management; student academic procrastination; strategies to reduce academic procrastination


Akram, A., Fu, C., Li, Y., Javed, M. Y., Lin, R., Jiang, Y., & Tang, Y. (2019). Predicting Students’ Academic Procrastination in Blended Learning Course Using Homework Submission Data. IEEE Access, 7, 102487–102498. Asri, D. N., Setyosari, P., Hitipeuw, I., & Chusniyah, T. (2017). The Influence of Project-based Learning Strategy and Self-regulated Learning on Academic Procrastination of Junior High School Students’ Mathematics Learning. American Journal of Educational Research, 5(1), 88-96. Beutel, M. E., Klein, E. M., Aufenanger, S., Brähler, E., Dreier, M., Müller, K. W., ... & Wölfling, K. (2016). Procrastination, distress and life satisfaction across the age range–a German representative community study. PloS one, 11(2), e0148054. Brownlow, S., & Reasinger, R. D. (2000). Putting off until tomorrow what is better done today: Academic procrastination as a function of motivation toward college work. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15, 15-34. Burka, J. B. & Yuen, L. M. (2008). Procrastination: Why You Do It, What to Do About It Now. Cambridge: Da Capo Press.

Ergene, Ö., & Türk Kurtça, T. (2020). Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers’ Levels of Academic Procrastination and Online Learning Readiness. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, 8(4), 52–66. Ferrari, J. R., Keane, S., Wolf, R., & Beck, B. L. (1998), The Antecedents and Consequences of Academic Excuse-Making: Examining Individual Differences in Procrastination. Research in Higher Education, 39, 199215.

Ferrari, J.R., Jhonson, J.L. & McCown, W.G. (1995). Procrastination and task avoidance: theory, research and treatment. New York: Plenum Press.

Combinative Class Management to Reduce Student Academic Procrastination

during the Covid-19 Pandemic

Grunschel, C., Patrzek, J., & Fries, S. (2013). Exploring reasons and consequences of academic procrastination: An interview study. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28(3), 841-861.

Hardin, C. J. (2004). Effective Classroom Management: Models and Strategies for today’s classroom. Columbus, OH: Pearson.

Jia, J., Jiang, Q., & Lin, X. H. (2020). Academic anxiety and self-handicapping among medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic: A moderated mediation model. Research Square, 1–22

Jones, V. F. & Jones, L. S. (1998). Comprehensive Classroom Management: creating communities of support and solving problems (5th ed.).Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon

Kauffman, J. M. (2005). Characteristics of emotional and behavioral disorders of children and youth. ERIC.

Kemenkes. (2020). Pedoman pencegahan dan pengendalian coronavirus disease (COVID-19).

Kiamarsi, A. & Abolghasemi, A. (2014). The relationship of procrastination and self-efficacy with Psychological vulnerability in students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 114 (2014) 858-862

Kim, K. R., & Seo, E. H. (2015). The relationship between procrastination and academic performance: Ameta analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 26–33. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2015.02.038 Klassen, R. M., Krawchuk, L. L., Lynch, S. L., & Rajani, S. (2008). Procrastination and Motivation of Undergraduates with Learning Disabilities: A Mixed-Methods Inquiry. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 23(3), 137–147. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5826.2008.00271.x

Klassen, R.M. (2010). Academic Procrastination in Two Settings: Motivation Correlates, Behavioral Patterns, and Negative Impact of Procrastination in Canada and Singapore. Journal of Applied Psychology (3), 361–379 doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2009.00394.x

Klingsieck, K. B., Grund, A., Schmid, S., & Fries, S. (2013). Why students procrastinate: A qualitative approach. Journal of College Student Development, 54(4), 397–412. doi:10.1353/csd.2013.0060

Knaus, W. (2010). End Procrastinaiton Now. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Krause, K. & Freund M. (2014). Delay or procrastination – A comparison of self-report and behavioral measures of procrastination and their impact on affective well-being. Elsevier

Landrum, T. J., & Kauffman, J. M. (2006). Behavioral Approaches to Classroom Management. Handbook of Classroom Management.

Mccloskey, J., & Scielzo, S. A. (2015). Finally! The development and validation of the academic procrastination scale.

Ozer, B. U., & Ferrari, J. R. (2011). Gender orientation and academic procrastination: Exploring Turkish high school students. Individual Differences Research, 9(1), 33–40. Ozer, B. U., Demir, A., & Ferrari, J. R. (2013). Reducing academic procrastination through a group treatment program: A pilot study. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 31(3), 127-135.

Pychyl, T. A., & Flett, G. L. (2012). Procrastination and self-regulatory failure: An introduction to the special issue. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 30(4), 203–212. doi:10.1007/s10942-012-0149-5

Schunk, D.H. 2012. Learning theories: An educational perspective (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Shalev, I. (2018). Use of a self-regulation failure framework and the NIMH Research Domain Criterion


International Seminar of Multicultural Psychology (ISMP 1st)

Faculty of Psychology Universitas 17 Agustus 1945 Surabaya

(RDoC) to understand the problem of procrastination. Frontiers in psychiatry, 9, 213. Sirois, F. M. (2014). Procrastination and stress: Exploring the role of self-compassion. Self and Identity, 13(2), 128-145. Solomon, L. J., & Rothblum, E. D. (1984). Academic procrastination: Frequency and cognitive-behavioral correlates. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31(4), 503-509.

Stead, R., Shanahan, M. J., & Neufeld, R. W. (2010). “I’ll go to therapy, eventually”: Procrastination, stress and mental health. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(3), 175–180. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2010.03.028

Steel, P. (2003). The nature of procrastination: A meta-analytic and theoretical review of selfregulatory failure. Unpublished research for University of Calgary.

Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: A meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological Bulletin 133(1), 65–94.

Steel, P., & Ferrari, J. (2013). Sex, education and procrastination: An epidemiological study of procrastinators’ characteristics from a global sample. European Journal of Personality, 27(1), 51–58. doi:10.1002/per.1851

Steel, P., & Klingsieck, K. B. (2016). Academic procrastination: Psychological antecedents revisited. Australian Psychologist, 51(1), 36–46. doi:10.1111/ap.12173

Suhadianto, Nurlaila, S., & Rahmawati, H. (2019). Academic procrastination of students at “A” accredited universities. International Conference of Psychology, 42–49.

Thye, M., Mosen, K., Weger, U., & Touschel D. (2016). Meditation & Procrastination. The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioral Sciences (EpSBS)

Tuckman, B. (2002). Academic Procrastinators: Their Reationalizations and Web-Course Performance. Paper presented at the 110th Anual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Chicago, Illinois. Walker, J. E., & Shea, T. M. (1999). Behavior management: A practical approach for educators. Prentice Hall.

WHO. (2020). Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV).

Zack, S. & Hen, M. (2018). Academic interventions for academic procrastination: A review of the literature. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community