The Role of Religion In The Constitutions of Indonesia and Pakistan: Comparison of Islamic Constitutional Law

  • Yayang Nuraini Zulfiani Universitas Padjajaran
  • Suwardi Maninggesa UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung
Keywords: Comparison, Constitutions, Democracy, Indonesia, Pakistan


The purpose of knowing the position of religion in the state constitution is to know how to protect human rights and what are the noble values ​​that regulate the lives of citizens, therefore religion in the constitution is one of the benchmarks for the administration of the state, constitutional norms place religion to occupy the important in the life of the state so that another consequence of the implementation of religious values ​​in the state is the policies of state officials and the behavior of citizens should not conflict with religious values. This study uses a normative approach and uses a qualitative analysis methodology with data collection techniques through literature studies such as legislation, books, legal journals, and online media. The results of the analysis show that in terms of the constitutions in Indonesia and Pakistan, there are several basic differences, starting from the use of norms, state institutions, government systems, social pluralism, and the implementation of the constitution considering that Indonesia is not an Islamic country while Pakistan is an Islamic country but there are still some similarities. between Indonesia and Pakistan, but this shows that if only religion is used in the constitution without paying attention to the social, economic, political, and cultural needs of the community, this will become a big problem so it will need to share


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Suwardi Maninggesa, UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung

Faculty of Law UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung


Abdillah, Masykur. Democracy at the Crossroads of Indonesian Muslim Intellectual Responses to the Concept of Democracy (1966-1993). Yogyakarta: Tiara Wacana, 1999.

Abiad, Nisrine. Sharia, Muslim States and International Human Rights Treaty Obligations: A Comparative Study. London: British Institute of International and Comparative Law, 2008.

Ali, Mukti. The Nature of Modern Islamic Thought in India and Pakistan. Bandung: Mizan, 1993.

Arikunto, Suharsimi. Research Procedures: A Practical Approach. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 2012.

Asshiddiqie, Jimly. “God” and Religion in the Constitution, Friction Between the Ideas of “Godly Constitution Versus Godless Constitution.” Jakarta, n.d.

———. Indonesian Constitution and Constitutionalism. Jakarta: Konstitusi Press, 2005.

Boland, B.J. The Islamic Struggle in Indonesia 1945-1972. Edited by Saafroedin Bahar’s translation. Jakarta: Grafiti Press, 1985.

Fahmi, Eri Nurul, Endin Mujahidin, and Imas Kania Rahman. “Development of Religious Tolerance of High School Levels.” Edukasi Islami: Jurnal Pendidikan Islam 10, no. 01 (February 18, 2021): 163.

Faiz, Pan Mohamad. “Islam and Ideological Competition in Parliament (Case Study: Pros and Cons of Incorporating the ‘Seven Words’ Jakarta Charter into the Constitution during the Reformation Period).” Jurnal Hukum & Pembangunan 35, no. 2 (July 3, 2017): 217.

Idris, Irfan. Islam and Constitutionalism: The Contribution of Islam in the Drafting of the Constitution of Modern Indonesia. Yogyakarta: AntonyLib, 2009.

Jindan, Khalid Ibrahim. Theory of Islamic Governance According to Ibn Taimiyah. Mufid Tran. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 1994.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia. “Pakistan.” Kemlu.Go.Id. Last modified 2018.

Muslem, Muslem. “Penyelenggaraan Pendidikan Agama Islam Di Pakistan.” KALAM 7, no. 1 (2019): 20–40.

Permana, Fuji E, and Nashih Nashrullah. “UU Penistaan Agama Di Pakistan Yang Picu Polemik Publik.” Republika.Co.Id. Last modified 2020. Accessed June 18, 2022.

Radjawane, Pieter. “Religious Freedom as a Constitutional Right in Indonesia.” SASI 20, no. 1 (2014): 30–36.

Sadzali, Ahmad. “Hubungan Agama Dan Negara Di Indonesia: Polemik Dan Implikasinya Dalam Pembentukan Dan Perubahan Konstitusi.” Undang: Jurnal Hukum 3, no. 2 (December 1, 2020): 341–375.

Santoso, Syarif Hidayat. “Merenung Dari Pakistan.” Mkri.Id. Last modified 2015. Accessed April 30, 2022.

Sjadzali, Munawir. Islam and Governance: Teachings and Thoughts. Jakarta: UI-Press, 1993.

Soekanto, Soerjono, and Sri Mamudji. Normative Legal Research: A Brief Overview. Jakarta: PT. King Grafindo Persada, 2001.

Sugiyono, Sugiyono. Research Methods (Quantitative, Qualitative, and R&D Approaches). Bandung: Alfabeta, 2013.

Syarif, Fajar. “Politicization of Religion: Religion in Political Discourse.” Walisongo: Jurnal Penelitian Sosial Keagamaan 25, no. 2 (December 7, 2017): 443.

Waseem, Mohammad. Patterns of Conflict in Pakistan: Implications for Policy. Washington: Saban Center, January 2011.

Wulandari, Fitri. “Islam and Democracy in Pakistan.” Jurnal El Tarikh 2, no. 1 (2021): 24–36.