Exploring Abstract Writing in the EFL Undergraduate Theses: A Construction-based Analysis

  • Nunung Nurjati Universitas PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya
  • Wahju Bandjarjani Universitas PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya, Indonesia
Keywords: abstract, abstract's structure, abstract's format, undergraduate thesis


An abstract is considered a miniature of a whole series of scientific works. The contents of each chapter in the entire scientific result must be represented in an abstract. However, various abstracts have different structures from one another. Thus, writers of scientific papers have a choice with the appropriate abstract form, but at the same time, they also have problems choosing which structure to use. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the designs of abstract writing from the EFL undergraduate students who different academic advisors guide. A qualitative method with content analysis was employed in this study by examining students' scientific work under the guidance of other supervisors in the form of theses with a focus on the abstract part. As a result of the research, it has been identified that most abstracts employed informative type and structured format with different compositions. In addition, the research results would contribute to the description of the abstract structure utilized by the students as the object of this research. Based on these findings, it can be suggested that understanding abstract construction can be employed by introducing different types of abstract and their format in academic writing courses or research methodology. The lecturer can apply the strategy of compiling leading questions for each abstract type. Answering the leading questions has guided the flow of abstract writing ideas in a thesis.  


Download data is not yet available.


Andrade, C. (2011). How to write a good abstract for a scientific paper or conference presentation. 53(2), 172–176. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5545.82558

Atanassova, I., Bertin, M., & Larivière, V. (2016). On the composition of scientific abstracts. Journal of Documentation, 72 (4), 636–647. https://doi.org/10.1108/JDOC-09-2015-0111

Bagli, D. (2017). Construction of a scientific abstract. October 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2017.08.010

Basthomi, Y. (2016). Mentoring Penulisan Karya Ilmiah. Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan Universitas Negeri Malang, 21(1), 107556.

Bengtsson, M. (2016). How to plan and perform a qualitative study using content analysis. NursingPlus Open, 2, 8–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.npls.2016.01.001

Bertin, M., & Larivière, V. (2016). On the composition of scientific abstracts On the composition of scientific abstracts. https://doi.org/10.1108/JD-09-2015-0111

Bhatia, V. K., Genre, A., Use, L., Settings, P., Analysis, G., & Preliminaries, T. (1997). Review article On Vijay K . Bhatia : Analysing Genre : Language Use in Professional Set- tings ( 1993 ) Genre Analysis - Step by Step. 19, 207–240.

Bhatti, I. A., Mustafa, Sahar M., & Azher, Musarrat, A. (2019). Genre Analysis of Research Article Abstracts in Linguistics and Literature: A Cross Disciplinary Study. International Journal of English Linguistics; Vol. 9, No. 4; 2019, ISSN 1923-869X E-ISSN 1923-8703. Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education

Bouchrika, I. (2023). Abstract Research Paper: Types, Tips & Best Practices Research.com. https://research.com/research/abstract-research-paper (downloaded 22-04-2023)

Darabad, A. M., & Branch, S. T. (2018). Move Analysis of Research Article Abstracts : A Cross-Disciplinary Study. April 2016. https://doi.org/10.5296/ijl.v8i2.9379

Drury, A., Pape, E., Dowling, M., Miguel, S., Fernández-Ortega, P., Papadopoulou, C., & Kotronoulas, G. (2023). How to Write a Comprehensive and Informative Research Abstract. Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 39, 0–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soncn.2023.151395

Halpern, F., & Phelan, J. (2017). Writing an Effective Abstract: An Audience-Based Approach. https://www.insidehighered.com/advice/2017/02/23/importance-writing-effective-abstract-when-you-submit-journal-article-essay

Harvey, A., Banerjee, A., Tong, G., & Brezovjakova, H. (2019). Anatomy of an abstract: a guide to writing a scientific abstract. April 2020.

Hyland, K. (2009). Academic Discourse: English in a Global Context. London: Continuum International Publishing Group

Labaree, R. V. (2018). Research Guides: Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: 3. The Abstract. Retrieved from http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/ abstract

Lowe, R. (1981). WRITING AN Abstract. Australian Journal of Opthalmology, 9(4), 253–253. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9071.1981.tb00917.x

Maher, C., Hadfield, M., Hutchings, M., & de Eyto, A. (2018). Ensuring Rigor in Qualitative Data Analysis: A Design Research Approach to Coding Combining NVivo With Traditional Material Methods. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 17(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406918786362

Male, H. (2018). A Structural Move Analysis of Abstracts in Undergraduate Theses: A Case Study at Universitas Kristen Indonesia. KnE Social Sciences, 3(9), 284. https://doi.org/10.18502/kss.v3i9.2690

McCombe, S. (2019). How to Write an Abstract | Steps & Examples. Revised by Ryan, E. (2022). https://www.scribbr.com/dissertation/abstract/

Nugraha, D. S. (2022). Abstract in Undergraduate Thesis : a Study of Linguistic Realizations of Rhetorical Moves and Thematic Patterns of Indonesian EFL Students. 6(1), 82–102.

Rahmiati, R. (2015). Analisis Kendala Internal Mahasiswa dalam Menulis Karya Ilmiah. Al Daulah : Jurnal Hukum Pidana Dan Ketatanegaraan, 4(2), 327–343. https://journal.uin-alauddin.ac.id/index.php/al_daulah/article/view/1486

Rusitayanti, N. W. A., Ariawati, N. W., Indrawathi, N. L. P., & Widiantari, N. L. G. (2021). Faktor-Faktor Kesulitan Mahasiswa Menyusun Skripsi Pada Prodi Penjaskesrek FKIP Universitas PGRI Mahadewa Indonesia di Era Adaptasi Kebiasaan Baru Tahun 2021. Jurnal Administrasi Pendidikan Indonesia, 12(2), 138–148.

Sanganyado, E. (2019). How to write an honest but effective abstract for scientific papers. 6, 4–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2019.e00170

Sirisilla, S. (2022). Role of an Abstract in Research Paper with Examples. Enago Academy. https://www.enago.com/academy/abstract-in-research-paper/ (downloaded 22-04-2023)

Study Smarter. (2023) Abstract. https://www.studysmarter.us/explanations/english/ summary-text/abstract/

Suntara, W., & Usaha, S. (2013). Research Article Abstracts in Two Related Disciplines: Rhetorical. English Language Teaching; Vol. 6, No. 2; 2013 ISSN 1916-4742 E-ISSN 1916-4750. Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education Variation between Linguistics and Applied Linguistics

Stubbs, M. (2003). English in Today's Research World: A Writing Guide. In English for Specific Purposes (Vol. 22, Issue 4). https://doi.org/10.1016/s0889-4906(02)00025-x

Suwarni, A. (2021). A Genre Analysis of the Undergraduate Thesis Abstracts: Revisiting Swales' Theory of Written Discourse. ELS Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, 4(1), 57–64. https://doi.org/10.34050/elsjish.v4i1.11598

Swales, J. M., & Feak, C. B. (n.d.). Writing of Abstracts VOLUME I OF THE REVISED AND EXPANDED EDITION OF: Vol. I.

Swales, J.M. (2008). Genre Analysis: English in academic and research settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Swales, J.M. & Feak, C. B. (2009) Abstracts and the Writing of Abstracts. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press

Swales, J. M. & Feak, C. B. (2012). Academic Writing for Graduates Students: Essential Tasks and Skills (3rd Edition) Michigan: The University of Michigan Press.

The Writing Center – University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. (2023) Abstracts. https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/abstracts/

The Writing Center-University of Wisconsin – Madison. (2023). Writing an Abstract for Your Research Paper https://writing.wisc.edu/handbook/assignments/writing-an-abstract-for-your-research-paper/

Writing Centre Learning Guide-The University of Adelaide (2023) Writing an Abstract


Writing Center- Arkansas State University Online (2023) How to Write an Abstract https://www.astate.edu/a/global-initiatives/online/a-state-online-services/online-writing-center/resources/How%20to%20Write%20an%20Abstract1.

How to Cite
Nurjati, N., & Bandjarjani, W. (2023). Exploring Abstract Writing in the EFL Undergraduate Theses: A Construction-based Analysis. Anaphora : Journal of Language, Literary, and Cultural Studies, 6(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.30996/anaphora.v6i1.8598